Day 212

How to Be a Good Citizen

Wisdom Psalm 89:38-45
New Testament Romans 13:1-14
Old Testament 1 Chronicles 7:1-9:1


Politicians: how do we treat them? Governments and local councils: how do we view them? Taxes: do we really need to pay them? What about evil regimes? If you live under a Hitler or Stalin are you supposed to obey them?

‘Be a good citizen,’ writes the apostle Paul. ‘All governments are under God. Insofar as there is peace and order, it’s God's order. So live responsibly as a citizen. If you’re irresponsible to the state, then you’re irresponsible with God, and God will hold you responsible. Duly constituted authorities are only a threat if you’re trying to get by with something. Decent citizens should have nothing to fear’ (Romans 13:1–3, MSG).

This would have been a radical idea to Paul’s original readers. In the ancient world most people saw religion and government as intertwined. The early church was still adjusting to the idea that the Messiah was not going to rule over his people in an earthly government. Those around them would have worshipped Rome and the Emperor as god. Yet here Paul tells them to follow Jesus as their King and still submit to Roman authority.

Paul’s teaching in Romans 13 needs to be balanced by Revelation 13. Revelation 13 was written at the time of the persecution of Christians under the Emperor Domitian. The state is seen as the ally of the devil (pictured as a red dragon) who has given his authority to the persecuting state (pictured as a monster emerging out of the sea). At worst, government can be demonic.

Both Romans 13 and Revelation 13 are true. There is good government and there is bad government. There is a good side to human government but there can also be an evil side. As Oscar Cullmann remarks, according to whether ‘the state remains within its limits or transgresses them, the Christian will describe it as the servant of God or as the instrument of the Devil’.

How then can you live as a good citizen?


Psalm 89:38-45

38 But you have rejected, you have spurned,
   you have been very angry with your anointed one.
39 You have renounced the covenant with your servant
   and have defiled his crown in the dust.
40 You have broken through all his walls
   and reduced his strongholds to ruins.
41 All who pass by have plundered him;
   he has become the scorn of his neighbours.
42 You have exalted the right hand of his foes;
   you have made all his enemies rejoice.
43 Indeed, you have turned back the edge of his sword
   and have not supported him in battle.
44 You have put an end to his splendour
   and cast his throne to the ground.
45 You have cut short the days of his youth;
   you have covered him with a mantle of shame.


Pray for those in authority

Israel was a theocracy. Church and state were inextricably intertwined. The ‘anointed’ leader of God’s people (v.38) was also the one who wore the ‘crown’ (v.39) and sat on the ‘throne’ (v.44).

The kings in the Old Testament were regarded as anointed by God. Yet many of them sinned and were unfaithful to the Lord. The psalmist writes, ‘But you have rejected, you have spurned, you have been very angry with your anointed one. You have renounced the covenant with your servant and have defiled his crown in the dust’ (vv.38–39).


Lord, I pray for our government and all the other leaders of our nation. May they never be covered with shame. May they govern well and wisely.

New Testament

Romans 13:1-14

Submission to Governing Authorities

13 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. 2 Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended. 4 For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. 5 Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience.

6 This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. 7 Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honour, then honour.

Love Fulfills the Law

8 Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for whoever loves others has fulfilled the law. 9 The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery,” “You shall not murder,” “You shall not steal,” “You shall not covet,” and whatever other command there may be, are summed up in this one command: “Love your neighbour as yourself.” 10 Love does no harm to a neighbour. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.

The Day Is Near

11 And do this, understanding the present time: The hour has already come for you to wake up from your slumber, because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. 12 The night is nearly over; the day is almost here. So let us put aside the deeds of darkness and put on the armour of light. 13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy. 14 Rather, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ, and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the flesh.


Enjoy freedom under authority

We live in the period between the first and second comings of Jesus. When Jesus returns he will rule and reign forever. There will be no need for human government. In the meantime, however, we do need human government. The authority of governments is properly seen, in St Peter’s phrase, as a ‘human authority’ (1 Peter 2:13).

This does not mean that humans devised it in independence or isolation from God. Rather, it is an institution implicit in human social existence as God made it.

Yet, since it is God who sets the terms, St Paul writes that everyone must submit themselves to the governing authorities (Romans 13:1–2).

If this applies to secular authority – how much more must it apply to the authority of the church? Different churches have different structures of authority. In my experience, submitting to the authority of the leaders of our church is not always easy, but brings great freedom.

This is the basic New Testament principle. You should obey every authority – the government, local authorities and the institutions you find yourself in. Why?

  1. You do so because they are part of the authority that is instituted by God.
  2. You do so because of the consequences of not obeying them: ‘But if you’re breaking the rules right and left, watch out. The police aren’t there just to be admired in their uniforms. God also has an interest in keeping order, and he uses them to do it’ (v.4, MSG).
  3. ‘… because of conscience’ (v.5). If you are not obeying the authorities, you cannot live with a clear conscience. ‘That’s why you must live responsibly – not just to avoid punishment but also because it’s the right way to live’ (v.5, MSG).

We see here a clear distinction between personal morality and the enforcement of law by government. In the field of personal morality, Paul’s teaching is very similar to that of Jesus: it is one of non-retaliation and ‘turning the other cheek’ (12:14–21). However, he moves from there to discuss ‘governing authorities’ (13:1–6). He speaks of rulers as God’s servants to bring punishment on the wrongdoer (v.4).

The state is concerned with the protection of others. To stand by and allow murder and violence would be unloving and unchristian. By analogy, if it is right for the authorities to use force to protect citizens against internal threats, arguably it is equally right to protect them against external ones by force, if necessary. In practice, of course, it is often extremely difficult to work out when such force is justified.

What is less controversial is that we should pay what we owe (vv.6–8). This means paying every penny of tax that you owe and all of your bills as soon as they arrive: ‘Give everyone what you owe… let no debt remain outstanding’ (vv.7–8).

It is not wrong to have a planned and manageable debt – mortgage, student loan or credit card. However, we are to mindfully avoid being in unplanned or unmanageable debt. If you find yourself in debt it is important not to ignore it and to get help as soon as possible, for example from one of the many Christian debt advice services.

The way to fulfil the law is by loving your neighbour as yourself. ‘When you love others, you complete what the law has been after all along’ (v.8b, MSG).

If we do this, we will not steal because of the unhappiness of the person from whom we steal, we will not kill or even have the wrong kind of anger because of the hurt it will bring to others. We will not commit adultery because of the damage it does to marriage and relationships.

‘The law code – don’t sleep with another person’s spouse, don’t take someone’s life, don’t take what isn’t yours, don’t always be wanting what you don’t have, and any other “don’t” you can think of – finally adds up to this: Love other people as well as you do yourself. You can’t go wrong when you love others. When you add up everything in the law code, the sum total is love’ (vv.9–10, MSG).

The law is summed up and fulfilled by love. Love is not an excuse for breaking the commandments but a way of keeping them. The commands were given out of love for us and are fulfilled by love. Paul does not write if you love you need not obey the commands. Rather, he says if you love you will fulfil the commands.

Jesus is the supreme example of love. Paul says, ‘clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ’ (v.14). Pray that the character of Jesus, his love, will surround and protect you and be seen by the people you meet today.


Lord, I want to clothe myself with the Lord Jesus Christ and not ‘think about how to gratify the desires of the sinful nature’ (v.14). May the love of Jesus be seen in me today.

Old Testament

1 Chronicles 7:1-9:1


7 The sons of Issachar:
   Tola, Puah, Jashub and Shimron—four in all.

2 The sons of Tola:
   Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam and Samuel—heads of their families. During the reign of David, the descendants of Tola listed as fighting men in their genealogy numbered 22,600.

3 The son of Uzzi:

The sons of Izrahiah:
   Michael, Obadiah, Joel and Ishiah. All five of them were chiefs. 4 According to their family genealogy, they had 36,000 men ready for battle, for they had many wives and children.

5 The relatives who were fighting men belonging to all the clans of Issachar, as listed in their genealogy, were 87,000 in all.


6 Three sons of Benjamin:
   Bela, Beker and Jediael.

7 The sons of Bela:
   Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth and Iri, heads of families—five in all. Their genealogical record listed 22,034 fighting men.

8 The sons of Beker:
   Zemirah, Joash, Eliezer, Elioenai, Omri, Jeremoth, Abijah, Anathoth and Alemeth. All these were the sons of Beker. 9 Their genealogical record listed the heads of families and 20,200 fighting men.

10 The son of Jediael:

The sons of Bilhan:
   Jeush, Benjamin, Ehud, Kenaanah, Zethan, Tarshish and Ahishahar. 11 All these sons of Jediael were heads of families. There were 17,200 fighting men ready to go out to war.

12 The Shuppites and Huppites were the descendants of Ir, and the Hushites the descendants of Aher.


13 The sons of Naphtali:
   Jahziel, Guni, Jezer and Shillem—the descendants of Bilhah.


14 The descendants of Manasseh:
   Asriel was his descendant through his Aramean concubine. She gave birth to Makir the father of Gilead. 15 Makir took a wife from among the Huppites and Shuppites. His sister’s name was Maakah.

Another descendant was named Zelophehad, who had only daughters.

16 Makir’s wife Maakah gave birth to a son and named him Peresh. His brother was named Sheresh, and his sons were Ulam and Rakem.

17 The son of Ulam:

These were the sons of Gilead son of Makir, the son of Manasseh. 18 His sister Hammoleketh gave birth to Ishhod, Abiezer and Mahlah.

19 The sons of Shemida were:
   Ahian, Shechem, Likhi and Aniam.


20 The descendants of Ephraim:
   Shuthelah, Bered his son,
   Tahath his son, Eleadah his son,
   Tahath his son, 21 Zabad his son
  and Shuthelah his son.

Ezer and Elead were killed by the native-born men of Gath, when they went down to seize their livestock. 22 Their father Ephraim mourned for them many days, and his relatives came to comfort him. 23 Then he made love to his wife again, and she became pregnant and gave birth to a son. He named him Beriah, because there had been misfortune in his family. 24 His daughter was Sheerah, who built Lower and Upper Beth Horon as well as Uzzen Sheerah.

25 Rephah was his son, Resheph his son,
   Telah his son, Tahan his son,
   26 Ladan his son, Ammihud his son,
   Elishama his son, 27 Nun his son
and Joshua his son.

28 Their lands and settlements included Bethel and its surrounding villages, Naaran to the east, Gezer and its villages to the west, and Shechem and its villages all the way to Ayyah and its villages. 29 Along the borders of Manasseh were Beth Shan, Taanach, Megiddo and Dor, together with their villages. The descendants of Joseph son of Israel lived in these towns.


30 The sons of Asher:
   Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi and Beriah. Their sister was Serah.

31 The sons of Beriah:
   Heber and Malkiel, who was the father of Birzaith.

32 Heber was the father of Japhlet, Shomer and Hotham and of their sister Shua.

33 The sons of Japhlet:
   Pasak, Bimhal and Ashvath.

These were Japhlet’s sons.

34 The sons of Shomer:
   Ahi, Rohgah, Hubbah and Aram.

35 The sons of his brother Helem:
   Zophah, Imna, Shelesh and Amal.

36 The sons of Zophah:
   Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah, 37 Bezer, Hod, Shamma, Shilshah, Ithran and Beera.

38 The sons of Jether:
   Jephunneh, Pispah and Ara.

39 The sons of Ulla:
   Arah, Hanniel and Rizia.

40 All these were descendants of Asher—heads of families, choice men, brave warriors and outstanding leaders. The number of men ready for battle, as listed in their genealogy, was 26,000.

The Genealogy of Saul the Benjamite

8 Benjamin was the father of Bela his firstborn,

Ashbel the second son, Aharah the third,

2 Nohah the fourth and Rapha the fifth.

3 The sons of Bela were:
   Addar, Gera, Abihud, 4 Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah, 5 Gera, Shephuphan and Huram.

6 These were the descendants of Ehud, who were heads of families of those living in Geba and were deported to Manahath:

7 Naaman, Ahijah, and Gera, who deported them and who was the father of Uzza and Ahihud.

8 Sons were born to Shaharaim in Moab after he had divorced his wives Hushim and Baara. 9 By his wife Hodesh he had Jobab, Zibia, Mesha, Malkam, 10 Jeuz, Sakia and Mirmah. These were his sons, heads of families. 11 By Hushim he had Abitub and Elpaal.

12 The sons of Elpaal:
   Eber, Misham, Shemed (who built Ono and Lod with its surrounding villages), 13 and Beriah and Shema, who were heads of families of those living in Aijalon and who drove out the inhabitants of Gath.
   14 Ahio, Shashak, Jeremoth, 15 Zebadiah, Arad, Eder, 16 Michael, Ishpah and Joha were the sons of Beriah.
   17 Zebadiah, Meshullam, Hizki, Heber, 18 Ishmerai, Izliah and Jobab were the sons of Elpaal.
   19 Jakim, Zikri, Zabdi, 20 Elienai, Zillethai, Eliel, 21 Adaiah, Beraiah and Shimrath were the sons of Shimei.
   22 Ishpan, Eber, Eliel, 23 Abdon, Zikri, Hanan, 24 Hananiah, Elam, Anthothijah, 25 Iphdeiah and Penuel were the sons of Shashak.
   26 Shamsherai, Shehariah, Athaliah, 27 Jaareshiah, Elijah and Zikri were the sons of Jeroham.

28 All these were heads of families, chiefs as listed in their genealogy, and they lived in Jerusalem.

29 Jeiel the father of Gibeon lived in Gibeon.

His wife’s name was Maakah, 30 and his firstborn son was Abdon, followed by Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, 31 Gedor, Ahio, Zeker 32 and Mikloth, who was the father of Shimeah. They too lived near their relatives in Jerusalem.

33 Ner was the father of Kish, Kish the father of Saul , and Saul the father of Jonathan, Malki-Shua, Abinadab and Esh-Baal.

34 The son of Jonathan:
   Merib-Baal, who was the father of Micah.

35 The sons of Micah:
   Pithon, Melek, Tarea and Ahaz.

36 Ahaz was the father of Jehoaddah, Jehoaddah was the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth and Zimri, and Zimri was the father of Moza. 37 Moza was the father of Binea; Raphah was his son, Eleasah his son and Azel his son.

38 Azel had six sons, and these were their names:
   Azrikam, Bokeru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah and Hanan. All these were the sons of Azel.

39 The sons of his brother Eshek:
   Ulam his firstborn, Jeush the second son and Eliphelet the third. 40 The sons of Ulam were brave warriors who could handle the bow. They had many sons and grandsons—150 in all.

All these were the descendants of Benjamin.

9 All Israel was listed in the genealogies recorded in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah. They were taken captive to Babylon because of their unfaithfulness.


Be aware of the limits of authority

As we look around the world today, we see good and bad leadership and government. The people of Israel had their share of bad government too.

As the chronicler concludes his lists and genealogies, he writes, ‘This is the complete family tree for all Israel, recorded in the Royal Annals of the Kings of Israel and Judah at the time they were exiled to Babylon because of their unbelieving and disobedient lives’ (9:1, MSG). In his list he mentions Saul, ‘Kish the father of Saul, and Saul the father of Jonathan’ (8:33), whom he will later highlight as an example of someone who started out as a good governor but ended up as a bad one (10:13–14).

Saul became an example of the kind of government that is spoken about in Revelation 13. Nevertheless, David sought as far as he possibly could to remain loyal and subject to his authority.


Lord, help me to live as a good citizen with the right attitude to all those who you put in authority over me. Help me to submit with good grace even when I disagree. Help us also to have the wisdom to know when the limits have been reached.

Pippa adds

‘Be up and awake to what God is doing!’ (Romans 13:12, MSG)



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Oscar Cullmann, The State in the New Testament (SCM, 1957) p.86.

Unless otherwise stated, Scripture quotations taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version Anglicised, Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 Biblica, formerly International Bible Society. Used by permission of Hodder & Stoughton Publishers, an Hachette UK company. All rights reserved. ‘NIV’ is a registered trademark of Biblica. UK trademark number 1448790.

Scripture marked (MSG) taken from The Message. Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002. Used by permission of NavPress Publishing Group.

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